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Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolyte Flame Retardant Additive Triethylphosphate Progress

Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolyte Flame Retardant Additive Triethylphosphate Progress

Lithium-Ion Batteries Because Of High Energy Density, High Voltage, Long Life And Other Advantages Come To The Fore In A Variety Of Secondary Batteries, In Electric Vehicles, Smart Grid And Other Fields Have Broad Application Prospects. Currently, Security Is Restricting High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Commercialization Bottlenecks, And Internal Lithium Ion Battery Electrolyte Is Highly Flammable Is An Important Cause Of Battery Safety Issues.

Most Of The Lithium Ion Battery Electrolyte Containing Lithium Hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), Lithium Perchlorate Organic Carbonates (LiClO4) And Lithium Hexafluoro Borate (LiBF6) And Other Lithium Salts. Such Solvents High Volatility, Low Flash Point, Very Easy To Burn. When A Battery Short Circuit, Overcharge And Other Anomalies, The Battery Internal Temperature, The Reaction Inside The Battery Electrode Materials And Electrolyte Between Prone To Electrolyte Decomposition Its Exothermic Reactions. When These Chemical Reactions Release Heat Can Not Be Evacuated, It Will Exacerbate The Reaction And Trigger A Series Of Chemical Reactions, A Sharp Increase In Battery Temperature, Or "Thermal Runaway", Eventually Leading To The Burning Of The Battery, Explode Serious.

In Order To Improve The Safety Of Lithium Ion Batteries, The Researcher From The Outside Of The Battery Management, Materials And Electrolyte Inside The Battery, Etc. Many Efforts, Such As Material With Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (PTC) Protection Board, The Modified Material, The Solid Electrolyte, The Resistance Electrolyte Fuel, Flame Retardant Additives. Among Them, The Flame Retardant Additives To Improve Battery Safety Is One Of The Most Cost-Effective Way, Its Main Role Is To Be Able To Prevent Oxidative Decomposition Of The Electrolyte, Thereby Inhibiting The Rise In The Internal Temperature Of The Battery. Currently, Fire-Retardant Material For Lithium Ion Batteries Is Divided Into Phosphates, Phosphites, Organic Halogenated Phosphazene Species And The Like. In This Paper, The Mechanism Of Flame Retardant Additives Were Brief, And The Latest Research Advances Flame Retardant Additives Were Reviewed In Detail.

Phosphate-Based Compound Is The First Study Of Flame Retardants Used In Lithium Ion Batteries. Trimethyl Phosphate, Triethyl Phosphate Stability And Flame Retardant Effect Were Investigated. It Was Found That, Due To The Viscosity Of Phosphates Is Usually Relatively Large, Poor Electrochemical Stability, Flame Retardants Added To The Electrolyte To Improve Flame Retardancy But Also On The Ionic Conductivity Of The Electrolyte And Battery Cycle Reversibility Had A Negative Impact. Thus, Alkyl Phosphates Are Not Suitable For Use As A Flame Retardant Lithium Ion Batteries.

Later, Xu Et Al., Fluorine (F) Element Is Introduced Phosphate, Synthesized A Series Of Fluoroalkyl Phosphates, Such As Tris (2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) Phosphate (TFP), Bis (2, 2,2-Trifluoroethyl) Methyl Phosphate (BMP) And 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl Diethyl Phosphate (TDP), F-Substituted Element Not Only Improves The Reduction Stability Of The Compound, And Retardant Effect Is Further Improved. In Retardant Effect, Ionic Conductivity, Reversibility And Cycling Stability Of Anode And Cathode Materials Used To Evaluate The Performance Of Which TFP Best. When 20% Of TFP With Added Electrolyte Nonflammable, And Has No Negative Impact On The Graphite Anode And Cathode Materials.

In The Electrolytic Solution Was Added 5% Methyl Diphenyl Phosphate (CDP) Can Significantly Reduce The Flammability Of The Electrolytic Solution, Improve The Thermal Stability Of The Battery. For Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO2) / CDP- Electrolyte / C System Performance CDP Additives Were Studied In Detail. The Results Showed That, CDP Is Added To Improve The Thermal Stability Of The Electrolyte And The Battery At The Same Time, The Performance Of The Electrochemical Cell Will Produce A Slight Impact, And, When Added At A Concentration Of 10% To The Electrolyte, The Cycle Performance Of The Battery Good, This Ratio May Be Due To Favor The Formation Of A Stable Solid Electrolyte (SEI) Film. A Phosphoric Acid Diphenyl Octyl (DPOF) As An Additive, The Results Show When Adding Different Concentrations DPOF, The Thermal Stability Of The Electrolyte Significantly Increased Electrochemically Stable Voltage Reaches 4.75 ~ 5.5V, The Discharge Capacity And Cycle Stability Has Improved To Some Extent, The Charge Transfer Resistance Is Significantly Reduced.

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